Brain Function & Emotional Health

Health Topics

brain functionWhile biomechanical dysfunction is usually viewed as a causative or contributing factor in the patientʼs problem, it is itself a consequence of the imperfections in that personʼs total adaptation, which is visible in posture. That adaptation, which is visible in posture and locomotion, is, to the discerning clinician, eloquent expression of the patientʼs total personality and view of the world and of self. It is no semantic accident that “posture” and “attitude” apply to both the physical and psychological domains. Given the unity of body and mind, posture and attitude reflect the history and status of both and help in determining where and how the body framework is vulnerable.

Peer Reviewed Publications:

1) Somatic dysfunction, osteopathic manipulative treatment, and the nervous system: a few fact, some theories, many questions. Irvin M. Korr, Ph.D. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, Feb 1986 Vol. 86, no. 2 pp. 109-114.

2) The effects of spinal manipulation on the intensity of emotional arousal in phobic subjects exposed to a threat stimulus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinicaltrial. Peterson KB. JMPT Nov. 1997;20(9), pp.602-6.

This study was done at a community college. Using muscle testing a spinal segment was found to be associated with an emotional response. Students were then adjusted while exposed to a fearful stimulus. It was found that the adjustments reduced the level of anxiety. Each studentʼs heart rate and report of fear was taken before, during and after viewing a “phobogenic stimulus” (fear evoking item ex. spider). Spinal adjustments were performed while the student was experiencing fear. After the chiropractic adjustment, the phobic test was performed again.

The researchers reported: “spinal manipulation significantly de-creased the intensity of emotional arousal reported by phobic subjects.”

3) Chiropractic medicine for rejuvenation of the mind. Academy of Chiropractic Medicine Gorman RF, 8 Budgen Street, Darwin, Australia, 1983.

Gorman, an ophthalmologist with an interest in migraine, worked with Eric Milne, M.D., a general practitioner who had an interest in spinal manipulation. They discovered a wide range of physical and psychological conditions responding to chiropractic care and believed that most people are suffering from decreased brain functioning due to decreased flow of blood to the brain and that chiropractic spinal manipulation could relieve this problem. They feel that many people are functioning with diminished mental potential or are disabled by “mental illness, which has a simple physical cause.” The cause they refer to is a restriction in blood flow to the brain because of vertebral misalignment that creates stress on the vertebral arteries.

4) Changes in brain function after manipulation of the cervical spine. Carrick FR. JMPT, Oct. 1997;20(8), pp.529-45.

The brain was mapped before and after chiropractic care (to the cervical spine) in 500 adult volunteers. The volunteers were divided into six groups and underwent “specific manipulation of the second cervical motion segment.” Blind spots are found in everyone and the size of the blind spot is an indicator of brain function. A larger blind spot indicates less cortical summation (less input from other areas of the brain). It was found that, in volunteers, an adjustment on one side of the neck in-creased blind spot size while an adjustment on the opposite side decreased it. “The results support the hypothesis that cortical-response maps can be used to measure the neurological consequences of spinal joint manipulation.”

Comment (tk): This is very exciting work which, as our technology continues to evolve, will give us a window into observing how brain activity changes as a result of spinal care.

5) Brain SPECT findings in late whiplash syndrome. Otte A, Mueller-Brand J, Fierz L. Lancet 1995; 345:1512-13.

Using Technetium-99m hexanethylproplyrnrsminr oxime single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), they found that 6 of 7 patients with non traumatic cervical pain had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion. In 24 patients confirmed by independent observers to be suffering from cognitive disturbances after whiplash injury, all had parieto-occipital hypoperfusion compared with 15 normal control subjects. 6) PET and SPECT in whiplash syndrome: a new approach to a forgotten brain? Otte A, Ettlin TM, Nitzsche EU, Wachter K, Hoegerle S, Simon GH, Fierz L, Moser E, Mueller- Brand J. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63:368-372.

From the abstract: Whiplash associated disorders are a medicolegally controversial condition becoming increasingly worrisome to the western world. This study was designed to evaluate perfusion and glucose metabolism in [the] whiplash brain. Comments: Whiplash patients have traditionally reported a number of symptoms that are related to brain function – i.e. loss of memory, vision changes, emotional changes. This study involved six patients suffering from whiplash syndrome and 12 normal controls. They gave everyone chemicals that reveal brain function when viewed by specialized equipment (PET and SPECT) which is similar to a CAT scan for the brain. In the patient group, there was “significant hypometabolism” or decreased brain function and hypoperfusion or de-creased blood in the parieto-occipital regions on the right and left side compared to the control group. However, most revealing was the authorsʼ statement as to the possible cause of the brain changes after they ruled out direct injury to the brain and brain structures: “It is hypothesized that parieto-occipital hypometabolism may be caused by activation of nociceptive afferent nerves from the upper cervical spine.”

7) Effect of osteopathic medical management on neurologic development in children. Frymann VM, Carney, RE, Springall P. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 1992; 92:729-744.

Authorʼs abstract: For 3 years, children between 18 months and 12 years of age, with and without recognized neuralgic deficits, were studied at the Osteopathic Center for Children. Their response to 6 to 12 osteopathic manipulative treatments directed to all areas of impaired inherent physiologic motion was estimated from changes in three sensory and three motor areas of performance. Neurologic performance significantly improved after treatment in children with diagnosed neurogic problems and to a lesser degree in children with medical or structural diagnoses. The advances in neurologic development continued over a several months interval. The results support the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment as part of pediatric health care based on osteopathic medical philosophy and principles.

8) Are radiographic changes in the thoracic and lumbar spine of adolescentʼs risk factors for low back pain in adults? A 25-year prospective cohort study of 640 school children. Spine. 1995; 20:2,298-2,302.

This is a study of 640 14-year-old children followed from 1965 through 1990 to determine risk factors for the development of low back pain in adulthood. Low back pain occurred during the growth period and family history was both associated with an increased risk. The lifetime reverence for back pain was 84% for this cohort. The proportion of subjects having radiographic abnormalities was 36% and yet this was associated with an increased incidence of back pain in adulthood. Interestingly, the investigators did find an increased incidence of mental problems such as fear or depression in the group of patients with radiographic changes in the T11-L2 area.

9) A retrospective assessment of network care using a survey of self-rated health, wellness and quality of life. Blanks, RHI, Schuster, TL. JVSR Vol. 1 No. 4, 1997. From the abstract: The present study represents a retrospective characterization of Network Care, a health care discipline within the subluxation-based chiropractic model. Data were obtained from 156 Network offices (49%) practitioners participation rate) in the United States, Canada, Australia and Puerto Rico. This was a survey of 2818 patients of 156 Network chiropractic offices. Results indicated that patients reported significant positive perceived change in al four domains of health, as well as overall quality of life. The evidence of improved health in the four domains (physical state, mental/emotional state, stress evaluation, life enjoyment), overall quality of life from a standardized index and the “wellness coefficient,” suggests that Network Care is associated with significant benefits. These benefits are evident from as early as 1-3 months under care, and appear to show continuing clinical improvements in the duration of care …with no indication of a maximum clinical benefit.

10) Monocular visual loss after closed head trauma: immediate resolution associated with spinal manipulation. R. Frank Gorman. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Vol. 18, No.3, June 1995.

The author, a medical doctor discusses the relationship between spinal health and blood supply to the head. From the paper (p.310) “ I hold the opinion, based on two decades of dedication to the intricacies of the ʻCervical Syndromeʼ and from a person al experience of 6,000 spinal manipulations done under anesthesia, that concentric narrowing of the visual fields indicates that the child has inferior brain function, which is a serious detriment in both the childʼs internal and external environment.”

11) A pilot study of applied kinesiology in helping children with learning disabilities. Mathews MO, Thomas E, British Osteopathic Journal Vol. X11 1993; Ferreri CA (1986) “All of the children in the treatment group made significant gains in IQ scores. An average increase of 8 Full Scale IQ points and 12 performance IQ points was obtained. Most children showed significant gains in visual perceptual organization. Some made significant gains in other important skills such as short-term auditory memory. Significant improvements were observed both at home and at school with regard to motivation, attitude and performance.”

Reports from treatment included: “Dyslexia teacher says he no longer needs help.” “No more thumb sucking.” “Asthma much better on the whole.”

12) Automated static perimetry in chiropractic. Gorman RF. JMPT 1993; 16: 481-487. Authorʼs Abstract: A 44 year old housewife presented with non-specific bilateral visual field loss. This visual disability disappeared immediate to pan-spinal manipulation under anesthesia. Later, on review, the presence of a unicular visual defect was detected by quantitative static perimetry. Further examination revealed no pathology in the eye or brain to explain its occurrence, suggesting that is was due to microischemia of the optic nerve.

Intervention and outcome: The unicular scotoma recovered immediate to further spinal manipulation under anesthetic, only to recur on two further occasions, each time to disappear immediate to spinal treatment.

Conclusions: This case history demonstrates that spinal manipulation may dissipate microvascular spasm in the brain: even in branches of the carotid arterial system, which is not directly related to the spine.

13) Effects of chiropractic treatment on blood pressure and anxiety. Yates RG, Lamping DL, Abram NL, Wright C. JMPT 1988;11:484-8.

In this patient-blinded, assessor-blinded, placebo-controlled study, the authors state that the data “lend support to the hypothesis that chiropractic manipulation of the thoracic spine significantly reduces blood pressure in patients with elevated blood pressure.” Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the adjusted group. No significant changes occurred in the placebo or control groups.

Case Studies:

1) Two cases of spinal manipulation performed while the patient contemplated an associated stress event: the effect of the manipulation/contemplation on serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Peterson, K.B, Chiropractic Technique, Vol. 7, No.2, May 1995.

Neuro-Emotional Technique (N.E.T.) is a fascinating technique to clear out physical correlations to emotional stress (called neuroemotional complexes by N.E.T. practitioners) in the body. The developer of N.E.T., Scott Walker, D.C. was inspired by Chinese medicine, particularly how acupuncture meridians related to spinal levels and emotional states. He then developed a system that correlates meridians to spinal levels. His analysis technique uses applied kinesiology to locate areas of emotional complex. The following case study documents the results of a single NET intervention on each of two women suffering with well documented hypercholesterolemia Baseline serum cholesterol levels for both patients averaged approximately 300 mg/dl and 227 mg/dl respectively. These results occurred between 2 and 5 months after the NET intervention. A 9 month to 1 year follow up test revealed that serum cholesterol levels had risen back to the original range.

2) Case #3 13-year-old with headache, depression, poor appetite, nausea, general muscular weakness, dizziness and sensitivity to light and noise.

3) Case reports in chiropractic pediatrics. Esch, S. ACA J of Chiropractic December 1988.

A 13 day old with a history of respiratory difficulty since birth (home birth, uncomplicated). Infant had difficulty nursing due to “stuffiness.” Upon presentation patient was in considerable pain, wearing dark glasses and ear plugs to compensate for increased sensitivity to sound and light. One week beforehand he had been injured in a football game collision. Medical doctors had given the child pain killers. Patient was hospitalized in traction for two weeks with no improvement.

Chiropractic examination: X-ray (Davis series) of the cervical spine showed right lateral displacement of atlas with right rotation of C-2. Following initial adjustment the patient could ride home without wearing his sunglasses and for the first time in two weeks expressed an interest in food. He returned the next day saying he felt, “The best Iʼve felt in six weeks.”

4) Monocular scotoma and spinal manipulation: the step phenomenon. R. Frank Gorman, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1996; 19:344-9. Dr. Gorman discusses the brain blood flow/spinal column relationship.

From the abstract: Objective: To discuss a case history wherein microvascular spasm of the optic nerve was treated by spinal manipulation.

Clinical Features: A 62 year old man who developed a scotoma in the vision of the right eye during chiropractic treatment.

Intervention and Outcome: Spinal manipulation treatment was continued with total resolution of the scotoma. The rate of recovery of the scotoma was mapped using computerized static perimetry. These measurements showed that significant recovery occurred at each spinal manipulation treatment, producing a stepped graph. From the conclusion: This case history suggests that spinal manipulation can affect the blood supply of localized areas of brain tissue. More important is the converse implication, that microvascular abnormality of the brain is caused by spinal derangement. Dr. Gorman noted that each spinal manipulation resulted in a ʻstepped graph.ʼ (hence the title).

5) The effects of chiropractic treatment on students with learning and behavioral impairments due to neurological dysfunction. Walton EV. International Review of Chiropractic 1975; 29:4-5,24-26.

Of the twenty-four learning impaired students, half received chiropractic care and the other half, who were either on medication or receiving no treatment at all, were used for comparison. The case histories that follow were obtained from the records of the students who received chiropractic care and appeared in “Chiropractic Effectiveness with Emotional Learning and Behavioral Impairments”.

Case Histories:

Case C 91: a high school student who was failing three subjects, with a history of failure, low morale, discipline problems, poor coordination, and a long history of clinical and medical treatment. After chiropractic care the student was passing all subjects, highly motivated, showing improved coordination and able to participate in athletics. All medications were dropped.

Case C 92: a high school student on 20mg. Ritalin and on Dilanton. She was nonmotivated, negative, passive, nonverbal, and failing in school work despite placement in special classes. After chiropractic adjustments the student was taken off Ritalin, began talking and expressing herself, and showed improved reading comprehension and reading speed.

Case CE 92: an elementary student who was extremely hyperkinetic, irritable, and he had severe behavior problems at home and school. Grades were marginal to failing. Although the boy was only 8 years old, Ritalin had been increased from an initial 5mg. to a total of 70mg./ day with steadily diminishing results. (70mg. approaches danger level as a dosage). At the conclusion of chiropractic care, the Ritalin had been entirely discontinued and coordination was improved to the extent that the student became an able Little League ball player. His attitude was excellent, grades were up an average of one letter grade, and the student was considered free of all limiting factors. Behavior at home and school was exemplary.

Case CE 101: an elementary student. This student was marginally passing his courses. There was a four year history of marginal accomplishment in school. He was nervous, underweight and suffered from insomnia. Medication was briefly tried but the studentʼs emotional control became poor and he frequently wept. The medication had to be discontinued. After chiropractic care there was a marked reduction in nervousness and great improvement in emotional stability. His mother reported that his appetite was now normal and he began enjoying school during the last month.

Case C 93: a high school student. Initially on heavy dosages of medication, nonmotivated with a long history of clinical evaluation and treatment. The girl was failing most school subjects, marginal in others, and withdrawn. After chiropractic adjustments, her self-confidence improved; she was passing all subjects. All medication was discontinued after four months of treatment. A vocational goal was established.

Case CJ 95: a junior high school student. He was hyperkinetic almost from birth and had a traumatic early developmental history with suspected neurological problems. Although of above average intelligence he was passing only two subjects, both marginally. He was starting to become a discipline problem, making little or no effort in school. After chiropractic care, fine and gross motor coordination improved markedly. He began taking an interest in athletics and played Little League on a team that placed third in the state. Effort and motivation improved to the extent that plans to send him back to a lower grade were dropped and he was promoted. Reports at the third week of school indicated that his academic progress was excellent after a late summer remedial program.

Case CE 102: an elementary student who had been diagnosed by numerous clinics as minimally brain damaged, retarded and/or suffering from neurological dysfunction. He also suffered from severe emotional problems. After chiropractic he showed great improvement in self-confidence. He began to take part in public speaking in school. Mental ability tests indicated that the student was at normal grade level except for deficiencies in reading.

Breakthrough for dyslexia and learning disabilities. Ferreri, CA and Wainwright, RB (1984) Exposition Press of Florida, Inc.

1) Changes in brain stem evoked response as a result of chiropractic treatment. Shambaugh P, Pearlman RC, Hauck K.

In Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Spinal Manipulation, FCER; 227-229. In this paper, it is suggested that chiropractic adjustments, at least in patients with acute musculoskeletal problems, may enhance brain function. The research modality used was brain stem evoked response or BSER - a measure of how well brain waves travel (in this case following a sound through a headphone). Four patients with acute musculoskeletal complaints and seven patients with no acute problems were adjusted with diversified technique and cranial adjusting. The four acute patients showed a shorter BSER latency period, indicating that the neural messages were going through their brain stems and auditory nerves more quickly or with less delay. This study supports the hypothesis that brain stem function can be improved by chiropractic adjustments in patients with acute musculoskeletal complaints.

2) Upper cervical adjustments may improve mental function. Thomas MD, Wood J. Journal of Manual Medicine, 1992, 6:215-216.

From the abstract: This report describes abrupt improvement in mental and motor deficits in a 14-year-old girl after the initiation of specific upper cervical chiropractic care. Cessation of this care for several months was associated with a return to the patientʼs previous condition. Repeat manipulation was followed by recovery of the patient to the level of her previous improvement. The child exhibited staring spells, never made eye contact, left arm and hand was used and remained flaccid as she walked. She had the verbal ability of a 3-year-old, spoke rarely, using single words. She was medically diagnosed with psychomotor seizures and a degenerative neurological disorder. After chiropractic adjustments began, she began to make eye contact. Within two weeks she was forming sentences, standing straighter, using her left arm and hand normally and began to engage in family conversation and activities.

3) The chiropractic management of anxiety: a case report. Sullivan EC. ACA J of Chiropractic, 1992 (SEP); 29:29-34.

A 42-year-old female patient suffered from anxiety attacks and agoraphobia since an auto accident. Other symptoms included nightmares, insomnia, tachycardia, dizziness, memory loss, difficulty in concentrating, and urinary bladder urgency. She also reported that a well-controlled peptic ulcer had exacerbated after the accident. Chiropractic analysis revealed major vertebral subluxation complex at C5-6, T5-6, and L5-S1 levels. After two months of chiropractic care and counseling patient reported a sharp reduction in anxiety, an end to agoraphobia attacks, bladder urgency, insomnia and dizziness and reduced low back pain. After an additional four months patient reported complete relief from anxiety and ulcer symptoms.

4) [Anorexia Nervosa] The side-effects of the chiropractic adjustment. Arno Burnier, D.C. Chiropractic Pediatrics Vol. 1 No. 4 May 1995.

Case history of A.S. female, 23 years old taken from the records of Dr. Arno Burnier. Physical problem: anorexia.

Chiropractic result: Complete resolution following the first adjustment. Follow-up two years later. Problem never returned.

Presenting Vertebral Subluxation: Occiput/C1 with atlas ASLP, C5/C6 P1. Original adjustment: Meningeal contact on occiput ridge medially close to the EOP for seconds, double notch contact on the sacrum for 20 seconds, axis spinous contact for 20 seconds. Structural manual adjustment of Atlas in extension and rotation, C5/C6 in extension in supine position.

Additional Publications:

1) Cerebral dysfunction: A theory to explain some effects of chiropractic manipulation. Terrett AGJ. Chiropractic Technique; 1993; 5:168-173.

From the abstract: “This paper presents a theory...to explain a possible mode of action of spinal manipulation in some patients with...visual disorders, dizziness, depression, anxiety, memory problems, attention span problems, difficulty with concentration, irritability, tired-ness, and clumsiness.” Terrett builds on the findings of Gorman and others to advance the theory that diminished blood flow to the brain causes some areas to “hibernate” that is, remain alive, but not function, resulting in diminished mental capacity. “Iʼm sure that this is exactly what happens to many people every day, and that this is why they suffer problems such as tiredness, headache, depression, irritability, difficulty concentrating, visual difficulty, etc.etc.” (Letter to the editor, Chiropractic Technique, Vol.6 No.3, Aug. 1994).

Dr. Koren comments: Dr. Frank Gorman hypothesized that the reason why patients visual acuity and other conditions improved after spinal care was due to removed blockage of the vertebral arteries. Dr. Alan G.J. Terrettʼs paper on brain hibernation

2) Cerebral dysfunction: A theory to explain some effects of chiropractic manipulation. Terrett AGJ. Chiropractic Technique; 1993; 5:168-173)

Discusses vertebral artery blockage as one possible mechanism of action. However, he has written that there may be more to the decrease in cerebral blood flow due to cervical spine subluxation than blockage of the cerebral arteries. In answering criticism that blockage of the cerebral arteries could not induce “brain hibernation” Dr. Terrett agreed that the cerebral arteries may not be the mechanism of the reduced cerebral blood flow due to cervical subluxation and that there may be, and most likely were other mechanisms involved: The cortex is not the whole deal anyway, the brainstem is not without important (blood supply from the vertebral arteries), and without it, the cortex is isolated… In this paper, I did not address the possibility of diaschisis. It is not practical or sensible to separate the brain into sections relating to blood supply apart from the consider-56 action of major segmental catastrophes, such as stroke.

Letter to the editor. Terrett AGJ. Chiropractic Technique Vol/6. No.3, August 1994. Sato and Budgellʼs paper further indicates that the vertebral arteries may not be the mechanism of cerebral function compromise, which appears to occur due to vertebral subluxations. This fascinating field will no doubt uncover other mechanisms of spinal/ brain relationship and I hope research in this field continues. However, let us not forget that the mechanism of function is of secondary importance. As with all Empirical healing arts (of which chiropractic is one) the most important thing is whether or not the patient gets better, not how well the mechanism is understood.

3) Study on cervical visual disturbance and its manipulative treatment. Zhang C, Wang Y, Lu W, et al. J Trad Chinese Medicine, 1984;4:205-210.

From the abstract: “Determination of blood flow by x-ray in 18 of our cases shows that blood flow of the cerebral hemispheres greatly improves after manipulative treatment. The same is true in similar animal tests.”

From the paper: “At the 1978 year end 3120 cases of cervical syndrome of which 30 were associated with hypopsia and blindness were summed up with satisfactory results found after manipulative treatment. Vision was restored to no less than 1.0 in 4 cases with blindness.”

4) Impaired Arterial Blood Flow to the Brain as a result of a cervical subluxation: a clinical report. Risley, WB. Journal American Chiropractic Assoc June 1995. pp. 61-63. From the abstract: The author has witnessed impairment of the velocity of arterial blood flow of the occipital artery, unilaterally or bilaterally, as a direct result of a cervical subluxation in over 15,000 patients. This impairment is documented by Doppler examination and is the virtual 100 percent concomitant of a cervical subluxation. Clinical correction of the subluxation, especially at the C-1,C-2 level, restores the blood velocity through the occipital artery, virtually 100 percent of the time. Failure to correct the subluxation commonly fails to relieve the impaired blood velocity in this artery. It is thus an effective monitor of the efficacy of the administered adjustment.

5) Course of attention and memory after common whiplash: a two-years prospective study with age, education and gender pair-matched patients. Di Stefano G and Radanov BP Acta Neurol Scand 1995; 91: 346-352).

From the abstract: “Attentional functional and memory of common whiplash patients were evaluated during the first two years after experiencing injury....All (117) patients had a similar socioeconomic background, all being injured in automobile accidents and fully covered by insurance plans. Two years following initial trauma, 21 patients remained symptomatic.” When compared with matched controls, the 21 symptomatic patients had no memory impairment but did have attention functional (difficulty of followup of tasks with divided attention).

Comment: Some studies have documented attention deficits in symptomatic whiplash patients as well as memory loss. This paper reviews the value of the studies done by others in this field and found them to have designs that were “insufficient.” The chiropractic interest in this subject is more than that of the neuromusculoskeletal condition of whiplash, but of the brain function that is affected by presumed subluxations of the cervical spine. This work should be read in concert with Gormanʼs and Zhangʼs papers (above).

6) Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect. Wrightson P. McGinnV, Gronwall D. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995; 59:375-380.

A mild head injury is defined by a hospital emergency department, as a head injury not severe enough to need admission for observation. 78 children were compared with 86 controls that had a minor injury in other areas. Children with mild head injury, at six months and one year were found to have scored less on a visual puzzle test and were more likely to have another mild head injury. At 6.5 years, they still scored less than controls.

7) Panic attacks and the chiropractic adjustment: a case report. Potthoff S. Penwell B, Wolf J. ACA J of Chiropractic, 1993 (December) 30:26-28.

A 52-year-old female diagnosed with chronic panic attacks. She had been prescribed a variety of antidepressants and tranquilizers over the years, as well as undergoing counseling and relaxation training - all to no benefit. Chiropractic examination revealed areas of upper and mid cervical, upper and mid thoracic and right sacroiliac fixations. The patientʼs blood pressure would read 182/102 mm Hg and her pulse rate 120 beats per minute during an attack. Her blood pressure would drop to 140/80 and her pulse to 76 beats per minute four minutes after the adjustment. She had been free of panic attacks for more than two months which is the best she had been in years in spite of the fact that her M.D. cut her Xanax dosage in half after she began chiropractic care.

9) Spinal patterns as predictors of personality profiles: a pilot study. Koren T. and Rosenwinkel E. International J of Psychosomatics. 1992;39 Nos. 1-4:10-17. Forty patients were analyzed by full spine (14”x36”) radiographs in both sitting (A to P and lateral) and standing (A to P and lateral) positions. Their radiographs were analyzed for distance from center of gravity, pelvic drop, occipital, atlas (C-1), T1, T12 and Sacral angles plus the degree and level of thoracic kyphosis. Each patient took a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test. The authors then analyzed the data from the radiographs and MMPI for any correlations between psychological expression and spinal indicators.

Among the findings: atlas angle (the measure of the number of degrees the atlas deviated from the horizontal plane) correlated to three MMPI scales: hypochondriasis, hysteria and paranoia in both standing and sitting films; the degree of the thoracic curve correlated with the hypomania scale (depression and low energy) only in the standing films and the pelvic drop correlated with “need for nurturing” in the sitting films. These findings seemed to agree with Dr. Lowell Wardʼs Spinal Column Stressology observations. The chief author (Dr. Koren) wishes to expand this pilot study as more research in this area is badly needed.

10) Chiropractic treatment of mental illness: a review of theory and practice. Goff P.J. Research Forum/Autumn, 1987.

From the abstract: Between 1920 and 1960, several residential programs for mental health treatment by chiropractors were in existence. This interest has been largely forgotten in the following years. The size of two Davenport institutions were remarkable, especially considering the varying economic climate during those years and that all payment was by individuals or their families. State-operated facilities were concurrently available at little or no cost. The length of existence of the chiropractic sanitaria, 40 years, is also remarkable, as is their demise at roughly the same time (c.1960). W.H. Quigley, D.C., claimed successful treatment of 60% of the admitted population, while the state hospitals of that time reported a success rate of 30%.

11) Chiropractic Success in a Reform School Report of State Supervisor of Chiropractors of Kentucky In Connection With Kentucky Houses of Reform, Greendale, Kentucky, Marshall L.T., Lexington, Kentucky (December 1, 1931). This little known report documents chiropractic success in a Kentucky Reform School. boys were placed under chiropractic care. The Report is largely made up of cases histories of all the 244 boys many of whom undoubtedly suffered from various emotional and learning disorders. The success of chiropractic care is admirable.

From the summary:

Number of boys given chiropractic adjustments...244.

Number of cases dismissed completely recovered or greatly benefited, 155 Of the 244 cases 89 are still under treatment

Number of cases promoted in school grades 54

Number of cases paroled 144.

Number of boys at Greendale (Kentucky Houses of Reform) at beginning of chiropractic program (September 3, 1930) approximately 540.

Number of boys at Greendale Dec. 1st, 1931 approximately 335 State officials were so impressed that they wrote enthusiastic letters of endorsement. From B.W. Hubbard, Superintendent, Commonwealth of Kentucky. Kentucky Houses of Reform:

“I have been able to notice a marked improvement in the mental and physical condition of the boys and in school work and conduct; also, there has been a larger number of paroles during that period than any previous period during the past four years.” ( p.3) “We have been able to accomplish results far beyond their fondest hopes and expectations in the rehabilitation of these boys. The teachers have voluntarily and without solicitation signed a petition asking for an all-time or full-time chiropractor in that institution.” (P.1)

From the teachers: “As the records will show the boys who underwent treatment improved from the first adjustment and in many instances showed improvement beyond belief. Not only did they improve in health, but also in their school work as pupils, showing better results in the shops and other industrial training and above all there has been a marked improvement in their moral life.” (p.7). Despite these endorsements, chiropractic services were not continued at the institution. (copy of this report can be obtained from the Palmer College reference library).

12) General muscular relaxation after chiropractic adjustment. Goff, McConnell, and Paone J of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigations, 1991; Vol. 7, No.1

13) Chiropractic approach to premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Whittier MA Journal of Chiropractic Research and Clinical Investigation, 1992;8:26-29. Eleven women with histories of PMS had improvement of all measured symptoms including “variation in sexual drive/habits,” “social impairment” and depression References from Koren Publicationsʼ brochure: Mental Health and Chiropractic Schwartz, H.S., Preliminary analysis 350 mental patientsʼ records treated by Chiropractors, Journal of National Chiropractic Association (Nov. 1949), pp. 12-15. Mental Health and Chiropractic, A Multidisciplinary Approach, Sessions Publishers, 48 Nassau Drive, New Hyde Park, New York, N.Y. 11040. 1973.

Dunn, E.E. Osteopathic Concepts in Psychiatry, Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 49: 354-357, (1950) Schizophrenics displayed subluxation of C-1 37.6%, C-2 66%, C-3 41.2%. T-4 54%, T-5 74.6%, T-6 67.6%.

Quigley, W.H. “Physiological psychology of chiropractic in mental disorder”. Ch. 10 in Mental Health and Chiropractic. 70% of schizophrenics and 33% of brain syndrome patients were successfully treated by chiropractic and released out of 72 cases studied